Hodgkin’s lymphoma is the medical term used for the cancer of lymphatic system. Lymphatic system of a person suffering from the disease grows abnormally; and in advanced stage of the disease the cancer cells might spread beyond lymphatic system. Progression of Hodgkin’s lymphoma results in decrease in the ability of the patient’s body to combat infection. In the past few years, the medical studies have come up with a lot of advancements in the field of treatment and diagnosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma. This has made full recovery from the disease a possibility. The chances of a patient to recover fully from Hodgkin’s lymphoma are more if the disease is diagnosed at an early stage. Knowing the common physical symptoms of this form of lymphoma will help people in identifying occurrence of the disease early. This article will inform you about the common signs of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
A person suffering from Hodgkin’s lymphoma might experience one or more of the symptoms discussed below:
Itchiness in the skin.
Severe night sweats.
Sudden weight loss without, the reason of which stay unexplained.
Enlargement of lymph nodes; the enlarged lymph nodes does not result in occurrence of any pain. In time of physical examination the noses might appear to be swollen and rubbery. Majority of the patients suffering from Hodgkin’s lymphoma (around 80 to 90%) get swollen lymph nodes in their shoulder and neck (supracavicular and cervical). The swelling might also occur in lymph nodes of chest; swelling of lymph nosed in our chest can be diagnosed by conducting a medical examination known as chest radiograph.
Hepatomegaly, a condition marked by enlargement of liver; around 5 percent patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma develop this condition.
An individual with Hodgkin’s lymphoma can develop splenomegaly as the symptom of the condition. Splenomegaly means the medical conditions in which the patient’s spleen becomes enlarged. When the treatment for Hodgkin’s lymphoma starts the volume of the affected spleen might fluctuate.
Some Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients might experience swelling in both there spleen and liver; the condition is medically termed as hepatosplenomegaly.
When a Hodgkin’s lymphoma patient drinks alcohol, he or she is might experience pain in the lymph nodes affected by the disease. However, this symptom is found only in a small share of Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients.
These patients often experience nonspecific back aches i.e. pain in the back that can’t be localized and the exact cause behind which can’t be determined through scanning and other medical examinations. In majority of the cases, back pain related to Hodgkin’s lymphoma affect’s the patient’s lower back.
Red patches on different parts of the body; petechiae triggered by abnormal decrease in platelet count, easy bleeding are also common among patients suffering from Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Around one-third of the individuals suffering from Hodgkin’s lymphoma might show up systematic symptoms. The most common systematic symptoms experienced by these patients include: mild to moderate grade of fever, losing a minimum of 10 percent of one’s actual body weight within a period of only 6 months (some patients lose body weight even faster), night sweats, pruritus or itchiness in the skin (this condition is triggered by increase in the eosinophil levels in the patient’s bloodstream) and fatigue or lassitude. The systematic symptoms of Hodgkin’s lymphoma like weight loss, night sweats and fever are categorized as the B symptoms; when a Hodgkin’s lymphoma patient experience these symptoms, it indicates that he or she is in the stage 2B and not in stage 2A of the disease.
Another common symptom of Hodgkin’s lymphoma is cyclical fever. In this form of fever the patient instead of getting mild to moderate grade of fever suffers from high grade of fever that is cyclical in nature. The medical term used for the fever type is Pel-Ebstein fevers or ‘P-E fevers’.www.justcancer.org
We are always amazed at some of the advancements being made in the field of cancer diagnosis and detection. When it comes to lung cancer, these new detection methods are especially important, as lung cancer is notoriously difficult to diagnose when it is in the earliest stages – and is easiest to treat.
Scientists report that a new diagnostic technique called Partial Wave Spectroscopic, or PWS Microscopy, is able to detect the presence of lung cancer. A group of NorthShore University and New York University researchers, including engineers and doctors, released their findings in this month’s issue of Cancer Research.
The process involves swabbing a person’s cheek and then shining a special light on the extracted cells. Dr. Hemant Roy of NorthShore University HealthSystems and the University of Chicago, calls PWS Microscopy “important because it provides the proof of concept that a minimally intrusive technique may allow us to tailor screening for lung cancer.”
He goes on to remind people that lung cancer is the leading cause of death for Americans. This year alone, the American Cancer Society predicts that at least 160,000 people will die as a result. Since 2003, just shy of one million Americans have died from lung cancer. It is really no surprise, considering the number of people who are longterm cigarette smokers and tobacco users. However, people who have never smoked can also get lung cancer.
The study of PWS Microscopy is just one of many studies of the effectiveness of “light-scattering analysis technique,” and studies specific to the detection of colon and pancreatic cancer have also been completed. Since 2002, Dr. Roy and his partner and co-author of the most recent study, BioEngineer Vadim Backman, have been working tirelessly with funding from grants to perfect the diagnostic technique.
“The results have even larger implications in that the techniques could be applied to a multitude of epithelial cancers, the most common cancer type,” says an expert who has long supported the studies.
Research indicates that PWS Microscopy and the similar technologies that came before it, including four-dimensional elastic light scattering fingerprinting [4D-ELF] and low-coherence enhanced backscattering [LEBS] can show just what happens to a cell when cancer is present within the body. It allows doctors to distinguish “affected cells” [which includes unhealthy cells that are not part of a malignant tumor] from normal cells. The affected cells have molecules that have undergone a change that allows light to filter through the cell, which tells diagnostic technicians that something is awry. It’s called the “Field Effect,” and these new techniques allow doctors to determine whether or not cancer is present by using cells in the cheek – far away from cells that have been invaded by cancer in the lungs.
The latest technique, according to Backman, “detects cellular alterations at the nanoscale” in cells that, under a microscope, might appear normal. The changes in cells of patients with lung, pancreatic and colon cancer happen early, so Backman believes that it is important to continue developing this kind of diagnostic procedure in an effort to diagnose patients as early as possible, when the cancer is most easily treated.
There are a few different types of lung cancer: Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, or NSCLC, which accounts for almost 80% of all lung cancer. Small Cell Lung Cancer, or SCLC, is generally caused by smoking cigarettes. Symptoms of lung cancer in general include chest pain, persistent cough, chronic bronchitis or other lung problems, blood-containing mucus or phlegm, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, and hoarseness. People with undiagnosed lung cancer may also begin to lose weight, experience headaches or joint pain, have swelling in their face or neck, and may feel weak and tired. These symptoms are similar to symptoms of less serious conditions, including the flu or pneumonia, so it is important to report these types of warning signs to your physician – especially if you are or were a smoker or user of tobacco.
Smoking is the number one cause of lung cancer, accounting for close to 90% of all cases. Secondhand smoke exposure actually increases a person’s risk of lung cancer by up to 30%! Other risk factors include asbestos exposure, which causes a fatal cancer known as malignant mesothelioma, of which there are three types. Exposure to air pollution, radiation, and having a history of Tuberculosis can also lead to lung cancer. Some people are diagnosed as a result of their genetic history.
If you would consider yourself a longtime smoker or user of tobacco, screening for lung cancer is crucial. After age 60, it is recommended that you undergo screenings, which may include a CT scan. Other diagnostic techniques include a biopsy or chest X-ray, and now, tests involving light-scattering procedures.
For now, patients with lung cancer, as well as the doctors and scientists who study the disease, remain hopeful that new diagnostic procedures will result in more patients receiving their diagnosis in the earliest stages of the disease.
The National Science Foundation has provided grants to fund the aforementioned research.
National Science Foundation
What is lung cancer and what causes
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in women and men in the United States and around the world. Lung cancer has surpassed breast cancer as a cause of cancer death in women.
In the United States in 2007, 160,390 people were projected to die from lung cancer, which is more than the number of deaths from colorectal cancer, breast and prostate cancer combined.
Only about 2% of people diagnosed with lung cancer that has spread to other areas of the body are alive five years after diagnosis, although the survival rate for lung cancers diagnosed at an early stage are higher, with about 49% survive for five years or more.
Some lung tumors are metastatic cancers elsewhere in the body. The lungs are a common site for metastasis. If so, cancer is not considered a lung cancer. For example, if prostate cancer spreads via the bloodstream to the lungs, it is metastatic prostate cancer (a secondary cancer) in the lung and is not called lung cancer.
Cancer occurs when normal cells undergo a transformation that makes them grow and multiply without normal controls. The cells form a mass or tumor that differs from the surrounding tissue from which it came. Tumors are dangerous because they take oxygen, nutrients and space from healthy cells.
About 90% of lung cancers occur because of smoking. Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer. Search as far back as the 1950s clearly established this relationship. Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 chemicals, many of which have been identified as causing cancer. A person who smokes more than a pack of cigarettes a day had a risk of developing lung cancer by 20 to 25 times greater than someone who has never />
However, once a person stops smoking, the risk of his lung cancer gradually decreases. About 15 years after leaving the risk of lung cancer decreases the level of someone who has never smoked. Cigar and pipe smoking also increases the risk of lung cancer, but not as much as smoking.
Most lung tumors are malignant. This means that they invade and destroy healthy tissue around them and may spread throughout the body.
Tumors can also spread to nearby lymph nodes or the bloodstream to other organs. This process is called metastasis. When lung cancer metastases, the tumor in the lung is called the primary tumor, and tumors in other parts of the body are called secondary tumors or metastases.
Adenocarcinoma (an NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer, making up 30% -40% of cases. A subtype of adenocarcinoma is bronchoalveolar carcinoma, which creates an appearance similar to pneumonia on chest radiographs. Squamous cell carcinoma (a NSCLC) is the second most common type of lung cancer, approximately 30% of all lung cancers. Large cell cancer (another NSCLC) constitutes 10% of all cases. SCLC accounts for 20% of cases. And finally, carcinoid tumors represent only 1% of all cases.
Lung cancers are usually divided into two main groups that represent about 95% of all cases. Such division into groups is based on the type of cells that make up the cancer. About 5% of lung cancers are rare cell types, including carcinoid tumors, lymphoma, and others.
The two main types of lung cancer are characterized by the size of the tumor cells when viewed under the microscope. They are called small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). NSCLC includes several subtypes of tumors. SCLC is less common, but they grow faster and are more likely to metastasize to NSCLC. Often SCLC have already spread to other parts of the body when cancer is diagnosed.
Up to one quarter of people with lung cancer may have no symptoms when the cancer is diagnosed. These cancers are usually identified further when a chest radiograph is performed for another reason. Most people, however, develop symptoms. The symptoms are due to direct effects of the primary tumor, the effects of metastatic tumors in other parts of the body, or to disturbances of hormones, blood or other systems caused by cancer.
Symptoms of primary lung cancer include cough, coughing up blood, chest pain and shortness of breath. Symptoms of metastatic lung tumors depend on the location and size. About 30% -40% of people with lung cancer have symptoms or signs of metastatic disease.
A cough that does not go away or worsens over time should be evaluated by a health care provider. Also, coughing up blood (hemoptysis) occurs in a significant number of people who have lung cancer. Any amount of coughed-blood is a cause for concern. Chest pain is a symptom in about one quarter of people with lung cancer. The pain is dull, throbbing, and persistent and may involve other structures surrounding the lungs.
In addition, shortness of breath usually results in a blockage of airflow in the lung, the collection of fluid around the lungs (pleural effusion), or the spread of the tumor in the lungs. Wheezing or hoarseness may signal blockage or inflammation in the lungs that can go along with cancer. Finally, repeated respiratory infections such as bronchitis or pneumonia may be a sign of lung cancer.
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Symptoms of breast cancer
2010 is October Breast Cancer Awareness campaign ribbon, awareness of the symptoms of breast cancer in many people to be aware of breast cancer early, when symptoms of breast cancer detected as early as possible the survival of breast cancer becomes greater. If there are any abnormalities in your breasts immediately check yourself into the doctor to take various examinations and treatment of breast cancer. We dedicate this article to women who care about breast health, and hopefully this message will make many women in this world has an awareness of breast cancer. Various articles you can read on this site is about breast cancer and how to find early signs of breast cancer, how the stage breast cancer stage, knowledge of different types of medical examinations of cancer breast, and how the lift breast cancer cells, various herbal medicines to treat breast cancer. symptoms of breast cancer
Breast cancer is a malignant tumor that develops in breast tissue, cancer can start growing in the mammary glands, milk ducts , fat and connective tissue in the chest. Symptoms of breast cancer have symptoms that you can learn by observing the following:
– Weight loss:
is the first sign of symptoms of cancer breast and other cancers, especially cancer of the pancreas, stomach, throat or lungs. Weight loss will be significantly reduced for reasons that are unclear, loss of appetite or fatigue. – There is a lump in breast
There are lumps in the chest when he hit the capital does not hurt. A review by feeling with your fingers to separate whethera lump in the breast are benign or malignant. To determine whether breast cancer is true, need to do a biopsy to take some tissue from the lump. -. Happened breast size or shape change
. – The wrinkles on the skin of the breast
The skin around the bumps or wrinkles around the breasts like oranges. -. color change to occur in breast
changes occur around the nipple and areola (dark brown area around the nipple)
– There is a wound in the breast
Injuries to the chest are more
and bleed easily. – The output of fluid from the breast, the nipple is soft,
The fluid is generally blood. – Breast Pain
thebreast pain is not common symptoms of breast cancer. But sometimes there is a bump caused by breast cancer. – Swelling of the breast. Swelling in one part of the chest. -. Bone pain, swelling of arms or ulcerated skin
First of all gets to be more serious, you should regularly check your breasts. If there are any anomalies immediately contact a doctor immediately and inspect. Hopefully
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