In the early 19th century, microscopy in pathology replaced gross descriptive pathology of the 18th century. Cells became known as the most important and distinct elements of benign and cancerous tissues. Thus, by the mid-1800s, a solid foundation had been laid for microscopy, and surgeons recognized that microscopic diagnosis by pathologists merited attention. In due course, preoperative microscopic diagnoses and classification of cancers in biopsy specimens were incorporated into choosing the most fitting surgical operation. Cancer 2011;. © 2011 American Cancer Society.dx.doi.org
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The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) held an exciting conference on Stem Cells, Development, and Cancer in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (March 3–6, 2011). The meeting was cochaired by Geoffrey Wahl, Connie Eaves, and Hans Clevers and was attended by 250 international researchers, 40% of whom were young investigators. Three key themes emerged: (i) heterogeneity in stem cells and cancer, (ii) solid tissue cancer stem cells, and (iii) lessons from development. The interdisciplinary foundation of this meeting was central to its success and appeal, underscoring the value of juxtaposing and interrelating work from the three topics addressed. Cancer Res; 71(17); 5616–20. ©2011 AACR.
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(Instituto de Medicina Molecular) An international team of researchers has found a group of mutations involved in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), and showed that certain drugs, already in clinical use to treat other diseases, can eliminate the cells carrying these mutations. Results will be published next week in Nature Genetics and may promote the development of novel therapeutic approaches against leukemia. www.eurekalert.org
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This network recognizes certain cancer cells using logic combinations of five cancer-specific molecular factors, triggering cancer cells destruction. www.topix.com
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Androgen-dependent pathways regulate maintenance and growth of normal and malignant prostate tissues. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) exploits this dependence and is used to treat metastatic prostate cancer; however, regression initially seen with ADT gives way to development of incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although ADT generates a therapeutic response, it is also associated with a pattern of metabolic alterations consistent with metabolic syndrome including elevated circulating insulin. Because CRPC cells are capable of synthesizing androgens de novo, we hypothesized that insulin may also influence steroidogenesis in CRPC. In this study, we examined this hypothesis by evaluating the effect of insulin on steroid synthesis in prostate cancer cell lines. Treatment with 10 nmol/L insulin increased mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenesis enzymes and upregulated the insulin receptor substrate insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2). Similarly, insulin treatment upregulated intracellular testosterone levels and secreted androgens, with the concentrations of steroids observed similar to the levels reported in prostate cancer patients. With similar potency to dihydrotestosterone, insulin treatment resulted in increased mRNA expression of prostate-specific antigen. CRPC progression also correlated with increased expression of IRS-2 and insulin receptor in vivo. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that the elevated insulin levels associated with therapeutic castration may exacerbate progression of prostate cancer to incurable CRPC in part by enhancing steroidogenesis. Cancer Res; 71(17); 5754–64. ©2011 AACR. cancerres.aacrjournals.org
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cells, deprivation, Development., expression, insulin levels, insulin receptor substrate, insulin treatment, maintenance, metabolic alterations, novo, progression, prostate cancer cells, prostate cancer patients, prostate specific antigen, steroid synthesis, way